Floating Treatment Wetlands (FTW) are engineered systems that utilize natural wetland processes to remove nutrients/pollutants from wastewater, storm water, and numerous other sources of contamination. FTWs are generally classified by type of macrophyte and the type of flow, free water surface with emergent plants (Floating Islands) or sub-surface with horizontal flow or vertical flow (Floating Wetlands).
FTWs are most commonly designed and deployed as Floating Islands, and as such they support the bacteria responsible for mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification, and serve as a physical filter for particulate pollutant removal. Applied generally, Floating Islands are a multiple-purpose water quality device for reducing ammonia, nitrate, phosphorous, total suspended solids (TSS), organic matter [biological oxygen demand (BOD)], and multiple other pollutants. While pollutants are removed by mechanisms such as physical filtration and plant uptake, microbial activity is the primary pathway for removing pollutants in wetland systems.
As an alternative approach to traditional FTW/Floating Island system designs, Floating Wetland Solutions designs systems that regulate the primary environmental factors that control wetland microbial processes to maximize treatment capacity. Our strategy for implementing environmental control leverages our unique product design that expands the definition of FTWs as Floating Islands only, to include submerged surface microbial habitat (receives sunlight), and integrates mass transfer design strategies, such as integration of open water areas, flow channels, structured habitat, and a high ratio of riparian edge to total FTW area into FTW design.
In most elementary terms, if the bacteria involved with mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification have sufficient provision of something to eat and something to breath (energy to support their metabolism), they have the capacity to grow exponentially until one of these primary resources is depleted. In degradation of organic matter, the organic matter is the food and oxygen is the energy source for respiration. Ammonia is the food in nitrification, and oxygen the energy source for respiration. In denitrification, organic carbon is the food, and an environment without oxygen is necessary for facultative bacteria to utilize nitrate for their energy requirements. By regulating primary control factors, we can leverage exponential growth capacity for bacteria to drive desired natural science mechanisms resulting in significant gains in treatment.
Our FTW systems include Floating Islands and submerged Floating Wetlands, BioFilters and Aerobic Digesters. Our modular product design provides the system design options that allow us to uniquely bundle products and position them within the waterbody so they can target the primary control factors that will enhance the desired natural science mechanisms for significantly enhanced performance.